METHODS FOR DETECTING FIRES IN ECOSYSTEMS USING LOW-RESOLUTION SPACE IMAGES
The paper presents the methods for fire identification using low-resolution space images obtained from Terra Modis and NOAA satellites. There are lots of algorithms to identify potentially "fire pixels" (PF). They are based on the assessment of temperature in spectral ranges from 3.5–4 to 10.5–11.5 microns. One of the problematic aspects in the Fire Detection Method using low-resolution space images is "Cloud and Water Masking". To identify "fire pixels", it is important to exclude from the analysis fragments of images that are covered with clouds and occupied by water objects. Identification of pixels in which one or more fires are actively burning at the time of passing over the Earth is the basis of the algorithm for detecting potentially "fire pixels". The algorithm requires a significant increase in radiation in the range of 4 micrometers, as well as on the observed radiation in the range of 11 micrometers. The algorithm investigates each pixel in a scene that is assigned one of the following classes as a result: lack of data, cloud, water, potentially fire or uncertain. The pixels that lack actual data are immediately classified as "missing data (NULL)" and excluded from further consideration. Cloud and water pixels, defined by the cloud masking technique and water objects, belong to cloud and water classes, respectively. The fire detection algorithm investigates only those pixels of the Earth's surface that are classified as potentially fire or uncertain. The method was implemented using the Visual Programming Tool PowerBuilder in the data processing system of Erdas Imaging. As a result of the use of the identification method, fires in the Chornobyl exclusion zone, steppe fires and fires at gas wells were detected. Using the method of satellite fire identification is essential for the prompt detection of fires for remote forests or steppes that are poorly controlled by ground monitoring methods.
environmental security; ecosystem fires in Ukraine; remote sensing; GIS
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