Battery swapping is a promising technology when compared with the traditional electric vehicle charging stations. The time spent at a battery swapping station might be similar to the time spent at a filling station. The article presents information on attempts to implement this solution, methods of battery swapping, infrastructure and operation of battery swapping stations, as well as the benefits and key challenges of the battery swapping technology.


battery swapping; battery swapping stations; electromobility; electric vehicles

Adegbohun F., Jouanne A. von, Lee K.: Autonomous Battery Swapping System and Methodologies of Electric Vehicles. Energies 12(4)/2019, 667 []. DOI:

Ahmad F., Saad Alam M., Saad Alsaidan I., Shariff S. M.: Battery swapping station for electric vehicles: oppor-tunities and challenges. IET Smart Grid 3(3)/2020, 280–286 []. DOI:

Armstrong M., El Hajj Moussa C., Adnot J., Galli A., Riviere P.: Optimal recharging strategy for battery-switch stations for electric vehicles in France. Energy Policy 60/2013, 569–582 []. DOI:

Banerjee A., Murali V., Venkoparao V. G.: Measuring Performance Impact of Battery Swapping on Mobility Behavior. 2018 IEEE 88th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Fall), 2018, 1–5. DOI:

Barré A., Suard F., Gérard M., Montaru M., Riu D.: Statistical analysis for understanding and predicting battery degradations in real-life electric vehicle use. Journal of Power Sources 245/2014, 846–856 []. DOI:

Chudy A.: The review of selected electrical energy storage techniques. IAPGOS 9(1)/2019, 23–28 []. DOI:

Chudy A.: Zarządzanie flotą pojazdów elektrycznych w sieciach inteligentnych – sterowanie ładowaniem oraz zagadnienia optymalizacyjne. Interdyscyplinarność w badaniach naukowych prace doktorantów Politechniki Lubelskiej. Wydawnictwo Politechniki Lubelskiej, Lublin 2020.

Chudy A., Mazurek P.: Electromobility – the Importance of Power Quality and Environmental Sustainability. J. Ecol. Eng. 20(10)/2019, 15–23 []. DOI:

Chudy A., Stryczewska H. D.: Electromagnetic compatibility testing of electric vehicles and their chargers. IAPGOS 10(3), 2020, 70–73 []. DOI:

Feng J., Hou S., Yu L., Dimov N., Zheng P., Wang C.: Optimization of photovoltaic battery swapping station based on weather/traffic forecasts and speed variable charging. Applied Energy 264, 2020, 114708 []. DOI:

Kim J., Song I., Choi W.: An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System. Energies 8(7), 2015, 6806–6819 []. DOI:

Li W., Li Y., Deng H., Bao L.: Planning of Electric Public Transport System under Battery Swap Mode. Sustainability 10(7), 2018, 2528 []. DOI:

Liang Y., Cai H., Zou G.: Configuration and system operation for battery swapping stations in Beijing. Energy 214, 2021, 118883 []. DOI:

Mahmoudzadeh Andwari A., Pesiridis A., Rajoo S., Martinez-Botas R., Esfahanian V.: A review of Battery Electric Vehicle technology and readiness levels. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 78, 2017, 414–430. []. DOI:

Mahoor M., Hosseini Z. S., Khodaei A., Kushner D.: Electric Vehicle Battery Swapping Station. 2017 [].

Mak H.-Y., Rong Y., Shen Z.-J. M.: Infrastructure Plan-ning for Electric Vehicles with Battery Swapping. Management Science 59(7), 2013, 1557–1575 []. DOI:

Qi W., Zhang Y., Zhang N.: Scaling Up Battery Swapping Services in Cities. SSRN, 2020 []. DOI:

Quinard H., Redondo-Iglesias E., Pelissier S., Venet P.: Fast Electrical Characterizations of High-Energy Sec-ond Life Lithium-Ion Batteries for Embedded and Stationary Applications. Batteries 5(1), 2019, 33 []. DOI:

Shao S., Guo S., Qiu X.: A Mobile Battery Swapping Service for Electric Vehicles Based on a Battery Swap-ping Van. Energies 10(10), 2017, 1667 []. DOI:

Sun B., Sun X., Tsang D. H.K., Whitt W.: Optimal battery purchasing and charging strategy at electric vehicle battery swap stations. European Journal of Operational Research 279(2), 2019, 524–539. []. DOI:

Tan X., Sun B., Wu Y., Tsang D. H.K.: Asymptotic performance evaluation of battery swapping and charging station for electric vehicles. Performance Evaluation 119, 2018, 43–57 []. DOI:

Verma A.: Electric vehicle routing problem with time windows, recharging stations and battery swapping stations. EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics 7(4), 2018, 415–451 []. DOI:

Wu C., Lin X., Sui Q., Wang Z., Feng Z., Li Z.: Two-stage self-scheduling of battery swapping station in day-ahead energy and frequency regulation markets. Applied Energy 2020, 116285 []. DOI:

Yang J., Sun H.: Battery swap station location-routing problem with capacitated electric vehicles. Computers & Operations Research 55, 2015, 217–232 []. DOI:

Zeng B., Luo Y., Zhang C., Liu Y.: Assessing the Impact of an EV Battery Swapping Station on the Reliability of Distribution Systems. Applied Sciences 10(22), 2020, 8023 []. DOI: (18.03.2021). (16.03.2021).


Published : 2021-06-30

Chudy, A. (2021). BATTERY SWAPPING STATIONS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES. Informatyka, Automatyka, Pomiary W Gospodarce I Ochronie Środowiska, 11(2), 36-39.

Aleksander Chudy
Lublin University of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electrotechnologies, Lublin, Poland  Poland