Evaluation of the contact angle and wettability of hydrophobised lightweight concrete with sawdust


Abstract

The aim of the research presented in the paper was to evaluate the feasibility of using hydrophobic preparations based on organosilicon compounds for protection treatment on the lightweight concrete modified with sawdust. The experimental part of the work concerns the physical and mechanical properties of lightweight concrete and the influence of two hydrophobic agents on the contact angle of the material. Lightweight concrete contact angle (θw) was determined as a time function using one measuring liquid. Water repellent coatings in lightweight concrete structure with the coarse aggregate sawdust (CASD) using electron microscopy were presented. The effectiveness of hydrophobisation of porous lightweight concretes was determined on the basis of the research. For the hydrophobic surface, the contact angle decreased and it depended on the used agents. The lowest contact angle of 40.2° (t=0) was obtained for reference concrete before hydrophobisation and 112.2° after hydrophobisation with a methyl-silicone resin based on organic solvent. The results of scientific research confirm the possibility to produce lightweight concretes modified with CASD with adequate surface protection against external moisture.


Keywords

sawdust; lightweight aggregate-concrete; organosilicon compounds; hydrophobisation; contact angle

Suliman N. H. et al., “Concrete using sawdust as partial replacement of sand : Is it strong and does not endanger health ?”, MATEC Web of Conferences, vol. 258, (2019), p. 01015. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201925801015

Kantautas A. and Vaickelionis G., “Modified sawdust concrete”, Statyba, vol. 6, no. 2, (Jan. 2000), pp. 113–119. https://doi.org/10.1080/13921525.2000.10531574

Paramasivam P. and Loke Y. O., “Study of sawdust concrete”, International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete, vol. 2, no. 1, (Mar. 1980), pp. 57–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/0262-5075(80)90008-1

Cheng Y. et al., “The Implementation of Waste Sawdust in Concrete”, Engineering, vol. 05, no. 12, (Nov. 2013), pp. 943–947. https://doi.org/10.4236/eng.2013.512115

Omar M. F. et al., “Partially Replacement of Cement By Sawdust And Fly Ash in Lightweight Foam Concrete”, in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2020, vol. 743, no. 1. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/743/1/012035

Bahtli T. and Ozbay N. S., “Corrosion resistances of C30 concrete: Effect of finely ground bronze sawdust waste”, Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 243, (Mar. 2020), p. 122588. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2019.122588

Li M. et al., “Mechanical characterization of concrete containing wood shavings as aggregates”, International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 6, no. 2, (Dec. 2017), pp. 587–596. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.12.005

Sudin R. and Swamy N., “Bamboo and wood fibre cement composites for sustainable infrastructure regeneration”, in Journal of Materials Science, 2006, vol. 41, no. 21, pp. 6917–6924. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-006-0224-3

Chowdhury S. et al., “The incorporation of wood waste ash as a partial cement replacement material for making structural grade concrete: An overview”, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, (Jun. 2015), pp. 429–437. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asej.2014.11.005

Siddique R., “Utilization of wood ash in concrete manufacturing”, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 67, (Oct. 2012), pp. 27–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2012.07.004

Chowdhury S. et al., “Strength development in concrete with wood ash blended cement and use of soft computing models to predict strength parameters”, Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 6, no. 6, (May 2014), pp. 907–913. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2014.08.006

Drdlová M. et al., “The behavior of cement-bonded wood-chip material under static and impact load”, in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2018, vol. 379, no. 1, p. 12025. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/379/1/012025

Coatanlem P. et al., “Lightweight wood chipping concrete durability”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 20, no. 9, (Nov. 2006), pp. 776–781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.01.057

Kasai Y. et al., “Study on Wood Chip Concrete with Used Timber”, Special Publication, vol. 179, (Jun. 1998), pp. 905–928.

Chege J. et al., “The effects of pine (Pinus Canariensis) tree bark extract on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete.”, Civil and Environmental Research, vol. 6, no. 9, (2014), pp. 70–81.

Oba K. M. and Amadi I. G., “A Predictive Mathematical Model for Water Absorption of Sawdust Ash - Sand Concrete”, International Journal of Engineering and Management Research, vol. 10, no. 01, (Feb. 2020), pp. 33–41. https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.10.1.7

Ewaen Ikponmwosa E. et al., “Experimental and numerical investigation of the effect of sawdust ash on the performance of concrete”, vol. 5, (2020), p. 15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41024-020-00081-3

Oyedepo O. J. et al., “Investigation of properties of concrete using sawdust as partial replacement for sand”, Civil and Environmental Research, vol. 6, no. 2, (2014), pp. 35–42.

Aldred J. M. et al., “The effect of initial moisture content on water transport in concrete containing a hydrophobic admixture”, Magazine of Concrete Research, vol. 53, no. 2, (Apr. 2001), pp. 127–134. https://doi.org/10.1680/macr.2001.53.2.127

Demirboǧa R. and Gül R., “The effects of expanded perlite aggregate, silica fume and fly ash on the thermal conductivity of lightweight concrete”, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 33, no. 5, (May 2003), pp. 723–727. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(02)01032-3

Kim H. K. et al., “Workability, and mechanical, acoustic and thermal properties of lightweight aggregate concrete with a high volume of entrained air”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 29, no. 29, (Apr. 2012), pp. 193–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.08.067

Suchorab Z. et al., “Influence of moisture on heat conductivity coefficient of aerated concrete”, Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S, vol. 18, no. 1, (2011), pp. 111–120.

Suchorab Z. et al., “Capillary rise phenomenon in aerated concrete. Monitoring and simulations”, in Proc. ECOpole 2 (4) (2010), 2010, pp. 285–290.

Lo T. Y. et al., “The effect of aggregate absorption on pore area at interfacial zone of lightweight concrete”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 22, no. 4, (Apr. 2008), pp. 623–628. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2006.10.011

Tittarelli F., “Oxygen diffusion through hydrophobic cement-based materials”, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 39, no. 10, (Oct. 2009), pp. 924–928. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2009.06.021

Suchorab Z. et al., “Free of volatile organic compounds protection against moisture in building materials”, Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S, vol. 21, no. 3, (Oct. 2014), pp. 401–411. https://doi.org/10.2478/eces-2014-0029

Czarnecki L., “Polymer concretes”, Cement Lime Concrete, vol. 15 (2), (2010), pp. 63–85.

Baltazar L. et al., “Superficial protection of concrete with epoxy resin impregnations: influence of the substrate roughness and moisture”, Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions, vol. 48, no. 6, (Jun. 2015), pp. 1931–1946. https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-014-0284-9

Osterholtz F. D. and Pohl E. R., “Kinetics of the Hydrolysis and Condensation of Organofunctional Alkoxysilanes: A Review”, Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, vol. 6, no. 1, (1992), pp. 127–149. https://doi.org/10.1163/156856192X00106

Felekoğlu B., “A method for improving the early strength of pumice concrete blocks by using alkyl alkoxy silane (AAS)”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 28, no. 1, (Mar. 2012), pp. 305–310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.07.026

Zhu Y. G. et al., “Influence of silane-based water repellent on the durability properties of recycled aggregate concrete”, Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 35, no. 1, (Jan. 2013), pp. 32–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2012.08.008

Nakamura Y. et al., “Surface analysis of silane nanolayer on silica particles using 1H pulse NMR”, Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, vol. 25, no. 19, (Jan. 2011), pp. 2703–2716. https://doi.org/10.1163/016942411X556079

Xiong G. et al., “Influence of silane coupling agent on quality of interfacial transition zone between concrete substrate and repair materials”, Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 28, no. 1, (Jan. 2006), pp. 97–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2005.09.004

Klisińska-Kopacz A. and Tilova R., “Effect of hydrophobization treatment on the hydration of repair Roman cement mortars”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 35, (Oct. 2012), pp. 735–740. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.05.002

MacMullen J. et al., “Brick and mortar treatment by cream emulsion for improved water repellence and thermal insulation”, Energy and Buildings, vol. 43, no. 7, (Jul. 2011), pp. 1560–1565. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.02.014

Chmielewska B. et al., “The influence of silane coupling agents on the polymer mortar”, Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 28, no. 9, (Oct. 2006), pp. 803–810. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2006.04.005

Matziaris K. et al., “Impregnation and super-hydrophobicity of coated porous low-fired clay building materials”, in Progress in Organic Coatings, 2011, vol. 72, no. 1–2, pp. 181–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.porgcoat.2011.03.012

Rudawska A., “Selected issues on establishing adhesion bonds - homogeneous and hybrid”, in Monographs - Lublin University of Technology, Lublin, 2013.

European Committee for Standardization, EN 828:2013-05. Adhesives. Determining wettability by means of measuring the contact angle and critical surface tension of solid. CEN: Brussels, Belgium, 2013.

Lugscheider E. and Bobzin K., “The influence on surface free energy of PVD-coatings”, Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 142, (2001), pp. 755–760. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0257-8972(01)01315-9

Baldan A., “Adhesion phenomena in bonded joints”, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, vol. 38, (2012), pp. 95–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2012.04.007

Vedantam S. and Panchagnula M. V., “Constitutive modeling of contact angle hysteresis”, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 321, no. 2, (May 2008), pp. 393–400. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2008.01.056

Zielecka M., “Methods of contact angle measurement as a tool for characterization of wettability of polymers”, Polimery-W, vol. 49, (2004), pp. 327–332.

Żenkiewicz M. et al., “Contact angle and surface free energy of electron-beam irradiated polymer composites”, Polimery-W, vol. 53, (2008), pp. 446–451.

Shang J. et al., “Comparison of different methods to measure contact angles of soil colloids”, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 328, no. 2, (Dec. 2008), pp. 299–307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2008.09.039

Klein N. S. et al., “Evaluation of the wettability of mortar component granular materials through contact angle measurements”, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 42, no. 12, (2012), pp. 1611–1620. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2012.09.001

European Committee for Standardization., EN 206+A1:2016-12. Concrete – Part 1: Specification, performance, production and conformity. CEN: Brussels, Belgium, 2016.

Polish Committee for Standardization, PN-B-06265:2004. National supplements PN-EN 206-1:2003 Concrete - Part 1: Specification, performance, production and conformity. PKN: Warsaw, Poland.

European Committee for Standardization., EN 197-1:2012. Cement—Part 1: Composition, Specifications and Conformity Criteria for Common Cements; CEN: Brussels, Belgium, 2012.

Polish Committee for Standardization. and European Committee for Standardization, EN 1936:2010. Natural stone test methods - Determination of real density and apparent density, and of total and open porosity. PKN: Warsaw, Poland, 2010.

Polish Committee for Standardization, PN-EN 1389:2005. Polish National Supplement: PN-EN 206-1:2003 Concrete. Specification, performance, production and conformity. PKN: Warsaw, Poland, 2005.

European Committee for Standardization, EN 12390-7:2019. Testing hardened concrete. Density of hardened concrete. CEN: Brussels, Belgium, 2019.

European Committee for Standardization, EN 12390-3:2019. Testing hardened concrete - Part 3: Compressive strength of test specimens. CEN: Brussels, Belgium, 2019.

Polish Committee for Standardization and Polish Committee for Standardization., PN-B-06250:1988. Ordinary concrete (In Polish). PKN: Warsaw, Poland, 1988.

Rudawska A. and Jacniacka E., “Analysis for determining surface free energy uncertainty by the Owen-Wendt method”, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, vol. 29, no. 4, (Jun. 2009), pp. 451–457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2008.09.008

Thalmaier G. et al., “Influence of sawdust particle size on fired clay brick properties”, Materiales de Construcción, vol. 70, no. 338, (Mar. 2020), p. 215. https://doi.org/10.3989/mc.2020.04219

Md Noor N. et al., “Compressive strength, flexural strength and water absorption of concrete containing palm oil kernel shell”, in IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 271, 2017.

Castro J. et al., “Effect of sample conditioning on the water absorption of concrete”, Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 33, no. 8, (Sep. 2011), pp. 805–813. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2011.05.007

Szafraniec M. et al., “Surface Modification of Lightweight Mortars by Nanopolymers to Improve Their Water-Repellency and Durability”, Materials, vol. 13, no. 6, (Mar. 2020), p. 1350. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061350

Suchorab Z. et al., “Mechanical and physical properties of hydrophobized lightweight aggregate concrete with sewage sludge”, Materials, vol. 9, no. 5, (Apr. 2016), pp. 1–18. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9050317

Barnat-Hunek D. et al., “Properties of hydrophobised lightweight mortars with expanded cork”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 155, (Nov. 2017), pp. 15–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.08.052

Qu Z. and Yu Q. L., “Synthesizing super-hydrophobic ground granulated blast furnace slag to enhance the transport property of lightweight aggregate concrete”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 191, (Dec. 2018), pp. 176–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.10.018

Barnat-Hunek D. et al., “Evaluation of the Contact Angle of Hydrophobised Lightweight-Aggregate Concrete with Sewage Sludge”, Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S, vol. 22, no. 4, (Jan. 2015), pp. 625–635. https://doi.org/10.1515/eces-2015-0037

Lei L. et al., “Fabrication of superhydrophobic concrete used in marine environment with anti-corrosion and stable mechanical properties”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 251, (Aug. 2020), p. 118946. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118946

Fic S. and Szewczak A., “Hydrophobisation effectiveness of building ceramics, polymeric inorganic ultrasound integrated with the addition of fillers”, Budownictwo i Architektura, vol. 14, no. 4, (Dec. 2015), pp. 019–027. https://doi.org/10.35784/BUD-ARCH.1517

Yoon H. S. et al., “Thermal transfer and moisture resistances of nano-aerogel-embedded foam concrete”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 236, (Mar. 2020), p. 117575. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117575

She W. et al., “Superhydrophobic concrete with enhanced mechanical robustness: Nanohybrid composites, strengthen mechanism and durability evaluation”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 247, (Jun. 2020), p. 118563. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118563

Franczak-Balmas D., “Analiza wpływu szorstkości powierzchni styku jako parametru kształtującego nośność styku zespolonych elementów betonowych”, Budownictwo i Architektura, vol. 16, no. 3, (Dec. 2017), pp. 125–134. https://doi.org/10.24358/Bud-Arch_17_163_12

Download

Published : 2020-06-30


Szafraniec, M. and Barnat-Hunek , D. (2020) “Evaluation of the contact angle and wettability of hydrophobised lightweight concrete with sawdust”, Budownictwo i Architektura, 19(2), pp. 019-032. doi: 10.35784/bud-arch.1644.

Małgorzata Szafraniec  m.szafraniec@pollub.pl
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology  Poland
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5862-9456
Danuta Barnat-Hunek  
Department of Construction; Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture; Lublin University of Technology; Nadbystrzycka 40, 20-618 Lublin, Poland;  Poland
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8409-3299




Copyright (c) 2020 Budownictwo i Architektura

Budownictwo i Architektura supports the open science program. The journal enables Open Access to their publications. Everyone can view, download and forward articles, provided that the terms of the license are respected.

The authors publish by transferring copyrights to Journal on the basis of Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License 4.0. (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 ) on the same conditions.

Publishing of articles is possible after submitting a signed statement on the transfer of license to the Journal (No derivative works: pdf, odt or docx ).

Open Access