The experimental investigation of the failure of load-bearing masonry walls supported by a deflecting structure
The paper presents selected results of tests of full-scale masonry walls linearly supported on a deflecting beam. The walls with thin bed joints and unfilled head joints were 4.55 m long and 2.45 m high, and were made of group 1 calcium silicate masonry units. The tests included walls with and without openings.
The tests were carried out in a specially designated and constructed test stand, which allowed simultaneous vertical load on the upper edge of the wall and vertical deflection of the beam supporting this wall. During the test, measurements of mutual displacements of six points on the wall surface were carried out. On both faces of masonry specimens, the changes of the length of the measuring bases connecting these six points were recorded.
Walls without openings were detached from the central part of the supporting beam at a deflection not exceeding 2 mm. Walls with one door opening also cracked at an early stage of tests. In this case, a detachment from the supporting beam and cracking at the ends of the lintel occurred because of the rotation of the pillars connected by the lintel above the opening. In walls with two door openings, first cracks were formed at the ends of lintels due to the rotation of pillars with a small deflection of the supporting beam, less than 3 mm. Whereas, in walls with door and window openings, first cracks occurred under the window and at the end of the lintel in the outer pillar of the wall.
AAC blocks masonry; floors deflexions; damages of masonry walls; transversal deformations of masonry
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