In the paper, an approach to frequency modulation is presented using a split-ring resonator (SRR) loaded by a varactor diode. The modulation occurs due to the continuous time variation of capacitance of the varactor diode via changing of its bias voltage by the signal which is necessary to modulate. The modulation signal is used for bias voltage. As a source of a carrier signal, one more extra magnetic loop antenna is utilized which is coupled with the SRR via near-field interaction. Investigation of two types of signals (harmonic and chaotic) was performed for modulation in the paper. It is shown that it is possibile to provide the frequency modulation with deviation Δfd = ±80 MHz which covers the frequency range 0.95…1.11 GHz for a 1 GHz carrier signal when a SMV1231 varactor diode is used. The major advantages of the suggested approach are the very simple design and ability to easily define the required values of frequency deviation through tuning of the bias voltage magnitude range of the varactor diode. Therefore, the presented investigation and results can be useful in the manufacturing of low-cost radio components.


frequency modulation; varactor diode; split-ring resonator; frequency range; frequency deviation

Aydin K., Bulu I., Guven K., Kafesaki M., Soukoulis C. M., and Ozbay E.: Investigation of magnetic resonances for different split-ring resonator parameters and design. New Journal of Physics 7(168)/2005, 1–15.

Baraclough M., Hooper I. R., Barnes W. L.: Investigation of the coupling between tunable split-ring resonators. Physical Review B 98/2018, 085146.

Binns K.J., Lawrenson P.J.: Analysis and Computation of Electric and Magnetic Field Problems. Pergamon International Library of Science, Technology, Engineering and Social Studies, 2013.

Ebrahimi A., Withayachumnankul W., Al-Sarawi S., and Abbott D.: High-sensitivity metamaterial-inspired sensor for microfluidic dielectric characterization. IEEE Sensors Journal 14(5)/2014, 1345–1351.

Freire M. J., Marques R., Jelinek L.: Experimental demonstration of a µ = -1 metamaterial lens for magneticresonance imaging M. J. Freire. Applied Physics Letters 93/2008, 231108 (1–4).

Gevorgian S. S. and Mironenko I. G.: Asymmetric coplanar-strip transmission lines for MMIC and integrated optic applications. Electron. Lett. 26(1916)/1990.

Girich A.A.: Left-Handed Metamaterial based on the Complementary Split-Ring Resonators Tuned with Varactor Diodes. Ukrainian Journal of Physics 62(10)/2017, 903–907.

Imade Y., Ulbricht R., Tomoda M., Matsuda O., Seiutinas G., Juodkazis S., Wright O.B.: Gigahertz Optomechanical Modulation by Split-Ring-Resonator Nanophotonic Meta-Atom Array. Nano Letters 17/2017, 6684–6689.

Kitayama D., Yaita M., Song H.-J., Nosaka H.: High-Speed and High-ON/OFF Ratio Split-Ring-Resonator-Based Active Metamaterial using Varactor Diodes. 41st International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz waves (IRMMW-THz), 2162–2035, 2016.

Liang Y., Boon Ch., Li Ch. et al.: Design and Analysis of D-Band Om-Chip Modulator and Signal Source Based on Split-Ring Resonator. IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems 27(7)/2019, 1513–1526.

Liang Y., Yu H., Zhang W., Lin F.: CMOS Sub-THz On-Chip Modulator by Stacked Split Ring Resonator with High-extinction Ratio. IEEE International Symposium on Radio-Frequency Integration Technology 2015, 67–69.

Liu P. et al.: Tunable meta-atom using liquid metal embedded in stretchable polymer. J. Appl. Phys. 118(1)/2015, 014504.

Liu W., Sun H., Xu L.: A Microwave Method for Dielectric Characterization Measurement of Small Liquids Using a Metamaterial-Based Sensor. Sensors 18/2005, 1438(1–10).

Marques R., Medina F., Rafii-el-Idrissi R.: Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials. Phys. Rev. B 65/2002, 144440 (1–6).

Marques R., Baena J. D., Martel J., Medina F., Sorolla M., Martin F.: Novel small resonant electromagnetic particles for metamaterial and filter design. International Conference on Electromagnetic in Advanced Applications (ICEAA’03), Torino, Italy 2015, 439–442, 2005.

Marques R., Martin F.: Wire media: Metamaterial Handbook. Theory and Phenomena of Metamaterials 2009. Chapter 16-1, CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Marques R., Mesa F., Martel J., Medina F.: Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside- coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design - theory and experiments. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 51/2003, 2572–2581.

Moser H.O., Casse B.D.F., Wilhelmi O., Saw B.T.: Terahertz Response of a Microfabricated Rod-Split_Ring Resonator Electromagnetic Metamaterial. Physical Review Letters 94/2005, 063901(1–4).

Puentes M., Schubler M., Jakoby R.: 2D sensor array based on Split Ring Resonators for monitoring of organic tissue. Sensors 2011, 12491246.

Rosa E. B.: The self and mutual inductances of linear conductors. Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards 4, 80/1908, 301–344.

Salim A., Lim S.: Complementary Split-Ring Resonator-Loaded Microfluidic Ethanol Chemical Sensor. Sensors, 16/2016, 1802(1–13).

Schuster Ch.: Fast and Accurate Tuning of a Cross-Coupled Split-Ring Resonator Filter. GeMiC-2018, March 12–14, 2018, Freiburg, Germany, 134–137.

Silva S. R., Shields A. D., Zhou J.: Tunable Optical Bistability and Optical Switching by Nonlinear Metamaterials. Material Science 2017.

Veselago V. G.: The Electrodynamics of Substances with Simultaneously negative Values of ε and μ. Soviet Physics Uspekhi 10(4)/1967, 509–514.

Vovchuk D., Khobzei M., Khavruniak M.: Sensing Properties of SRR: influence of finger touching. Int. Scientific-Practical Conference PIC S&T’2019, 8–11 October 2019, Kyiv, Ukraine, 799–802.

Wang Q., Mao D., Dong L.: Thermomechanically Tunable Infrared Metamaterials Using Asymmetric Split-Ring Resonators. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 26(6)/2017, 1–3.

Ye-xin S., Jiu-sheng L., Le Z.: Graphene-integrated split-ring resonator terahertz modulator. Opt. Quant. Electron., 350/2017, 1–9.

Zheludev N.I., Kivshar Yu.S.: From metamaterials to metadevices. Nature Materials 11/2012, 917–924.


Published : 2020-09-30

Vovchuk, D., Haliuk, S., Robulets, P., & Politanskyi, L. (2020). FREQUENCY MODULATION APPROACH BASED ON SPLIT-RING RESONATOR LOADED BY VARACTOR DIODE. Informatyka, Automatyka, Pomiary W Gospodarce I Ochronie Środowiska, 10(3), 74-77.

Dmytro Vovchuk
Serhii Haliuk 
Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Department of Radio Engineering and Information Security, Chernivtsi, Ukraine  Ukraine
Pavlo Robulets 
Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Department of Radio Engineering and Information Security, Chernivtsi, Ukraine  Ukraine
Leonid Politanskyi 
Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Department of Radio Engineering and Information Security, Chernivtsi, Ukraine  Ukraine